Problems : Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

  1. On a day when the temperature reaches 60°F, what is the temperature in degrees Celsius and in kelvins?
  2. A pan of water is heated from 35°C to 90°C. What is the change in its temperature on the Kelvin scale and on the Fahrenheit scale?
  3. A constant-volume gas thermometer is calibrated in dry ice (that is, carbon dioxide in the solid state, which has a temperature of -80.0°C) and in boiling ethyl alcohol (78.0°C). The two pressures are 0.900 atm and 1.635 atm. (a) What Celsius value of absolute zero does the calibration yield? What is the pressure at (b) the freezing point of water and (c) the boiling point of water?
  4. Liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of -195.81°C at atmospheric pressure. Express this temperature (a) in degrees Fahrenheit and (b) in kelvins.
  5. A 1.0-mol sample of an ideal gas is kept at 0.0°C during an expansion from 3.0 L to 10.0 L. How much work is done on the gas during the expansion? How much energy transfer by heat occurs with the surroundings in this process?
  6. A 1.0-kg bar of copper is heated at atmospheric pressure. If its temperature increases from 20°C to 50°C, what is the work done on the copper bar by the surrounding atmosphere? What quantity of energy is transferred to the copper bar by heat? What is the increase in internal energy of the copper bar?
  7. Five thousand joules(5000J) of heat are added to a closed system, which then does 3000 J of work. What is the net charge in the internal energy?
  8. A gas is expanded at atmospheric pressure(101,325 pascals). The volume of the gas was 5×10-6 m3. The volume of the gas is now 5×10-3 m3. How much work was done in the process?
  9.  A thermodynamic system undergoes a process in which its internal energy decreases by 500 J. At the same time, 220 J of work is done on the system. Find the energy transferred to or from it by heat.