# Other Physicists

Wallace Clement Sabine | 1868-1919 American |
founded the science of architectural acoustics |

Arnold Sommerfeld | 1868-1951 German |
generalized the circular orbits of the atomic Bohr model to elliptical orbits; introduced the magnetic quantum number; used statistical mechanics to explain the electronic properties of metals |

Lise Meitner | 1878-1968 Austrian-born Swedish |
co-discovered the element protactinium and studied the effects of neutron bombardment on uranium; introduced term “fission” for splitting the atomic nucleus |

Paul Ehrenfest | 1880-1933 Austrian |
applied quantum mechanics to rotating bodies; helped develop the modern statistical theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics |

Theodor von Kármán | 1881-1963 Hungarian-born American |
provided major contributions to our understanding of fluid mechanics, turbulence theory, and supersonic flight |

Walther Meissner | 1882-1974 German |
co-discovered the “Meissner effect”, whereby a superconductor expells a magnetic field |

Hans Geiger | 1883-1945 German |
helped measure charge-to-mass ratio for alpha particles; invented Geiger counter for detecting ionizing particles |

Hermann Weyl | 1885-1955 German |
attempted to incorporate electromagnetism into general relativity; evolved the concept of continuous groups using matrix representations and applied group theory to quantum mechanics |

Arthur Jeffrey Dempster | 1886-1950 Canadian-born American |
discovered the isotope uranium-235 |

Henry Moseley | 1887-1915 British |
developed the modern form of the period table of elements based on their atomic numbers |

Sir Robert Watson-Watt | 1892-1973 Scottish |
developed radar |

Satyendra Bose | 1894-1974 Indian |
worked out statistical method of handling bosons (a group of particles named in his honor) |

Oskar Klein | 1894-1977 Swedish |
introduced the physical notion of extra dimensions that helped develop the Kaluza-Klein theory; co-developed the Klein-Gordon equation describing the relativistic behavior of spinless particles; co-developed the Klein-Nishina formula describing relativistic electron-photon scattering |

Vladimir A. Fock | 1898-1974 Russian |
made fundamental contributions to quantum theory; invented the Hartree-Fock approximation method and the notion of Fock space |

Leo Szilard | 1898-1964 Hungarian-born American |
first suggested possibility of a nuclear chain reaction |

Pierre Auger | 1899-1993 French |
discovered the Auger effect whereby an electron is ejected from an atom without the emission of an x-ray or gamma-ray photon as the result of the de-excitation of an excited electron within the atom; discovered cosmic-ray air showers |

Ernst Ising | 1900-1998 German-born American |
developed the Ising model of ferromagnetism |

Fritz London | 1900-1954 German-born American |
co-developed the phenomenological theory of superconductivity; co-developed the first quantum-mechanical treatment of the hydrogen molecule; determined that the electromagnetic gauge is the phase of the Schrödinger wave function |

Charles Francis Richter | 1900-1985 American |
established the Richter scale for the measurement of earthquake intensity |

George E. Uhlenbeck | 1900-1988 Dutch |
co-discovered that the electron has an intrinsic spin |

Robert J. Van de Graaf | 1901-1967 American |
invented the Van de Graaf electrostatic generator |

Samuel Abraham Goudsmit | 1902-1978 Dutch |
co-discovered that the electron has an intrinsic spin |

Igor Vasilievich Kurchatov | 1903-1960 Soviet |
headed the Soviet atomic and hydrogen bomb programs |

John von Neumann | 1903-1957 Hungarian-born American |
formulated a fully quantum mechanical generalization of statistical mechanics |

George Gamow | 1904-1968 Russian-born American |
first suggested hydrogen fusion as source of solar energy |

J. Robert Oppenheimer | 1904-1967 American |
headed Manhattan Project to develop the nuclear fission bomb |

Sir Rudolf Peierls | 1907-1995 German-born British |
many contributions in theoretical physics, including an improved calculation of the critical mass needed to make a fission bomb |

Edward Teller | 1908-2003 Hungarian-born American |
helped develop atomic and hydrogen bombs |

Victor F. Weisskopf | 1908-2002 Austrian-born American |
made theoretical contributions to quantum electrodynamics, nuclear structure, and elementary particle physics |

Homi Jehangir Bhabha | 1909-1966 Indian |
initiated nuclear research programs in India; carried out experiments in cosmic rays; calculated cross section for elastic electron-positron scattering |

Nikolai N. Bogolubov | 1909-1992 Russian |
theoretical physicist and mathematician who contributed to the microscopic theory of superfluidity; also contributed to theory of elementary particles, including the S-matrix and dispersion relations, and to nonlinear mechanics and the general theory of dynamical systems |

Maurice Goldhaber | 1911-2011 Austrian-born American |
first measured (with James Chadwick) an accurate mass for the neutron; participated in experiments proving that beta rays are identical to atomic electrons; developed (with Edward Teller) the concept of coherent oscillations of protons and neutrons in nuclei leading to the giant dipole resonance; performed an experiment showing that neutrinos are created with negative helicity, which provided conclusive evidence for the V-A theory of weak interactions; participated in experiments that obtained an upper limit on the rate of proton decay and that provided evidence for neutrino oscillations |

Chien-Shiung Wu | 1912-1997 Chinese-born American |
experimentally proved that parity is not conserved in nuclear beta decay |

Henry Primakoff | 1914-1983 Russian-born American |
co-developed the theory of spin waves; first described the process that became known as the “Primakoff effect” (the coherent photoproduction of neutral mesons in the electric field of an atomic nucleus); contributed to understanding of various manifestations of the weak interaction, including muon capture, double-beta decay, and the interaction of neutrinos with nuclei |

Robert Rathbun Wilson | 1914-2000 American |
driving force behind creation of Fermilab and Cornell University’s Laboratory of Nuclear Studies; a leader in the formation of the Federation of Atomic Scientists; did extensive measurements of kaon and pion photoproduction in which he made the first observation of a new state of the nucleon, N(1440) |

Vitaly L. Ginzburg | 1916-2009 Russian |
contributed to theory of superconductivity and theory of high-energy processes in astrophysics; co-discovered transition radiation, emitted when charged particles traverse interface between two different media |

Robert E. Marshak | 1916-1993 American |
contributed to theoretical particle physics; independently proposed (with George Sudarshan) the V-A theory of weak interactions; developed explanation of how shock waves behave under conditions of extremely high temperatures |

Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky | 1919-2007 German-born American |
co-discovered the neutral pion via photoproduction; studied gamma rays from pi^{–} captured in hydrogen and first measured the “Panofsky ratio” |

Robert V. Pound | 1919-2010 Canadian-born American |
used the Mössbauer effect to measure (with Glen A. Rebka, Jr.) the gravitational redshift predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity |

Vernon W. Hughes | 1921-2003 American |
participated in experiments to test the fundamental QED interaction using the muonium atom |

Freeman J. Dyson | 1923- British-born American |
made many important contribututions to quantum field theory, including the demonstration that the Feynman rules are direct and rigorous consequences of quantum field theory; advocated exploration of the solar system by humans; speculated on the possibility of extraterrestrial civilizations |

Calvin F. Quate | 1923- American |
made pioneering contributions to nanoscale measurement science through the development and application of scanning probe microscropes |

Lincoln Wolfenstein | 1923- American |
contributed to theory of weak interactions, especially concerning neutrino masses, the origin of CP violation, lepton number violation, the solar neutrino problem, and Higgs boson properties |

James E. Zimmerman | 1923-1999 American |
co-invented the radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), a practical magnetometer/amplifier with extreme sensitivity limited only by the uncertainty principle |

Felix Hans Boehm | 1924- Swiss-born American |
pioneered the use of nuclear-physics techniques for exploring fundamental questions concerning the weak interactions and the nature of neutrinos |

Ernest M. Henley | 1924- German-born American |
contributed to the theoretical understanding of how symmetries place restrictions on theories and models; the connection of quarks and gluons to nucleon-meson degrees of freedom; the changes that occur when hadrons are placed in a nuclear medium |

Benoit Mandelbrot | 1924-2010 French-American |
developed theory of fractals |

D. Allan Bromley | 1926-2005 Canadian |
served as Science Advisor to the President of the United States; carried out pioneering studies of nuclear structure and dynamics; considered the father of modern heavy-ion science |

Sidney D. Drell | 1926- American |
made important theoretical contributions to particle physics and quantum electrodynamics; specialist in arms control and national security |

Albert V. Crewe | 1927-2009 British-born American |
developed the first practical scanning electron microscope |

John Stewart Bell | 1928-1990 Irish |
proved the inherent nonlocality of quantum mechanics |

Stanley Mandelstam | 1928- South African |
contributed to the modern understanding of relativistic particle scattering through his representation of the analytic properties of scattering amplitudes in the form of double dispersion relations (Mandelstam representation); applied path-integral quantization methods to string theory |

Peter Higgs | 1929- British |
proposed with others the Higgs mechanism by which particles are endowed with mass by interacting with the Higgs field, which is carried by Higgs bosons |

Akito Arima | 1930- Japanese |
co-developed the Interacting Boson Model of the atomic nucleus |

Mildred S. Dresselhaus | 1930- American |
contributed to the advance of solid-state physics, especially involving carbon-based materials, including fullerenes and nanotubes (a.k.a., buckyballs and buckytubes) |

Joel Lebowitz | 1930- Swiss-born American |
contributed to condensed matter theory, especially involving statistical mechanics: phase transitions; derivation of hydrodynamical equations from microscopic kinetics; statistical mechanics of plasmas |

John P. Schiffer | 1930- American |
studied nuclear structure, pion absorption in nuclei, ion traps and crystalline beams, heavy-ion physics, and the Mössbauer effect |

T. Kenneth Fowler | 1931- American |
contributed to the theory of plasma physics and magnetic fusion |

Tullio Regge | 1931- Italian |
developed the theory of Regge trajectories by investigating the asymptotic behavior of potential-scattering processes through the analytic continuation of the angular momentum to the complex plane |

Oscar Wallace Greenberg | 1932- American |
introduced color as a quantum number to resolve the quark statistics paradox |

John Dirk Walecka | 1932- American |
contributed to the theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus as a relativistic quantum many-body system; provided theoretical guidance in exploiting electromagnetic and weak probes of the nucleus |

Daniel Kleppner | 1932- American |
co-invented the hydrogen maser; explores quantum chaos by optical spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms |

Jeffrey Goldstone | 1933- American |
contributed to understanding the role of massless particles in spontaneous symmetry breaking (Goldstone bosons) |

John N. Bahcall | 1934-2005 American |
made important theoretical contributions to understanding solar neutrinos and quasars |

James D. Bjorken | 1934- American |
formulated the scaling law for deep inelastic processes and made other outstanding contributions to particle physics and quantum field theory |

Ludvig Faddeev | 1934- Russian |
made many theoretical contributions in quantum field theory and mathematical physics; developed the Faddeev equation in connection with the three-body system; co-developed the Faddeev-Popov covariant prescription for quantizing non-Abelian gauge theories; contributed to the quantum inverse scattering method and the quantum theory of solitons |

David J. Thouless | 1934- American |
contributed to condensed matter theory, especially vortices in superfluids, the quantum Hall effect, and topological quantum numbers |

Peter A. Carruthers | 1935-1997 American |
contributed to several areas of theoretical physics, including condensed matter, quantum optics, elementary particle physics, and field theory; statistics and dynamics of galaxy distributions |

Gordon A. Baym | 1935- American |
contributed to several areas of theoretical physics, including condensed matter, low-temperature physics including superfluidity, statistical physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics; made advances in quantum statistical mechanics and the study of neutron stars |

Stanley J. Brodsky | 1940- American |
contributed to theoretical understanding of high-energy physics, especially the quark-gluon structure of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics |

Haim Harari | 1940- Israeli |
predicted the existence of the top quark, which he named; also named the bottom quark |

Kip S. Thorne | 1940- American |
contributed to theoretical understanding of black holes and gravitational radiation; co-founded the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory Project (LIGO) |

Francesco Iachello | 1942- Italian-born American |
co-developed the Interacting Boson Model of the atomic nucleus; introduced supersymmetry in nuclei (1980); developed the Vibron Model of molecules (1981) |

Gabriele Veneziano | 1942- Italian |
first introduced string theory to describe the strong force without using quantum fields |

Chris Quigg | 1944- American |
contributed to theoretical understanding of high-energy collisions and the fundamental interactions of elementary particles |

Thomas A. Witten | 1944- American |
contributed to theory of soft condensed matter; structured fluids |

Howard Georgi | 1947- American |
co-developed the SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories of all elementary particle forces; developed the modern QCD-inspired quark model; helped develop the modern theory of perturbative QCD |

Nathan Isgur | 1947-2001 American |
contributed to understanding the quark structure of baryon resonances; discovered a new symmetry of nature that describes the behavior of heavy quarks |

Edward Witten | 1951- American |
made fundamental contributions to manifold theory, string theory, and the theory of supersymmetric quantum mechanics |

Ralph Charles Merkle | 1952- American |
leading theorist of molecular nanotechnology; invented the encryption technology that allows secure translations over the internet |

K. Eric Drexler | 1955- American |
father of nanotechnology |

Nathan Seiberg | 1956- American |
contributed to the development of supersymmetric field theories and string theories in various dimensions |

Stephen Wolfram | 1959- British |
created Mathematica, the first modern computer algebra system; contributed to development of complexity theory |

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