Nobel Laureates 1925-1960

Donald A. Glaser 1926-
American
invented the bubble chamber
Henry W. Kendall 1926-1999
American
co-discovered, through investigations of deep-inelastic electron scattering, clear signs that there exists an inner structure (quarks and gluons) in the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus
Ben Mottelson 1926-
American
contributed to theoretical understanding of collective motion in nuclei
Tsung-Dao Lee 1926-
Chinese-born American
co-proposed parity violation in weak interactions
Abdus Salam 1926-1996
Pakistani
co-developed gauge field theory of the electroweak interaction; suggested that the proton might be unstable
K. Alexander Müller 1927-
Swiss
co-discovered the first ceramic superconductors
Martin L. Perl 1927-
American
discovered the tau lepton
Murray Gell-Mann 1929-
American
advanced an explanation of strange particles; predicted the existence of the Omega particle; postulated existence of quarks; founded the study of QCD
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer 1929-
German
experimented with resonance absorption of gamma radiation; discovered “Mössbauer effect,” the recoilless emission of gamma rays by nuclei
Richard E. Taylor 1929-
Canadian
co-discovered, through investigations of deep-inelastic electron scattering, clear signs that there exists an inner structure (quarks and gluons) in the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus
Leon Cooper 1930-
American
contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superconductivity
Jerome I. Friedman 1930-
American
co-discovered, through investigations of deep-inelastic electron scattering, clear signs that there exists an inner structure (quarks and gluons) in the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus
George E. Smith 1930-
American
co-invented the CCD (charge-coupled device)
James W. Cronin 1931-
American
co-discovered that decays of neutral kaons sometime violate CP conservation
David M. Lee 1931-
American
co-discovered that the isotope Helium-3 becomes a quantum superfluid near absolute zero
Burton Richter 1931-
American
carried out an experiment leading to the discovery of charmonium
J. Robert Schrieffer 1931-
American
contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superconductivity
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes 1932-2007
French
developed theories in condensed matter physics applicable to liquid crystals and polymers
Sheldon Glashow 1932-
American
co-developed gauge field theory of the electroweak interaction
Melvin Schwartz 1932-2006
American
proposed that it should be possible to produce and use a beam of neutrinos; co-discovered the muon neutrino
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji 1933-
French
developed methods, with his colleagues, of using laser light to cool helium atoms to a temperature of about 0.18 µK and capturing the chilled atoms in a trap
Charles K. Kao 1933-
Chinese-born British-American
pioneer in the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications
Arno A. Penzias 1933-
German-born American
co-discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation
Heinrich Rohrer 1933-
Swiss
co-designed the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a type of microscope in which a fine conducting probe is held close the surface of a sample
Steven Weinberg 1933-
American
co-developed gauge field theory of the electroweak interaction
Carlo Rubbia 1934-
Italian
contributed to experiments that led to the discovery of the carriers (W± and Z°) of the weak interaction
Robert W. Wilson 1936-
American
co-discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation
Samuel C. C. Ting 1936-
American
carried out an experiment leading to the discovery of charmonium
Kenneth Wilson 1936-
American
invented renormalization group methods to develop a theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions; contributed to solving QCD using lattice gauge theory
Robert C. Richardson 1937-
American
co-discovered that the isotope Helium-3 becomes a quantum superfluid near absolute zero
Albert Fert 1938-
French
co-discovered Giant Magnetoresistance, which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disks
Peter Grünberg 1939-
German
co-discovered Giant Magnetoresistance, which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disks
Brian Josephson 1940-
British
contributed to theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier
Toshihide Maskawa 1940-
Japanese
contributed to theoretical understanding of CP-violation; co-discovered the origin of the broken symmetry that predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks
David J. Gross 1941-
American
co-discovered “asymptotic freedom” in non-Abelian gauge theories; contributed to the development of string theory
Klaus von Klitzing 1943-
German
discovered the quantized Hall effect
Makato Kobayashi 1944-
Japanese
contributed to theoretical understanding of CP-violation; co-discovered the origin of the broken symmetry that predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks
Douglas D. Osheroff 1945-
American
co-discovered that the isotope Helium-3 becomes a quantum superfluid near absolute zero
Gerard t’ Hooft 1946-
Dutch
contributed to theoretical understanding of gauge theories in elementary particle physics, quantum gravity and black holes, and fundamental aspects of quantum physics
Gerd Binnig 1947-
German
co-designed the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a type of microscope in which a fine conducting probe is held close the surface of a sample
Steven Chu 1948-
American
developed the Doppler cooling method of using laser light (optical molasses) to cool gases and capturing the chilled atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT)
William D. Phillips 1948-
American
developed, with his colleagues, a device called a Zeeman slower, with which he could slow down and capture atoms in a purely magnetic trap
H. David Politzer 1949-
American
co-discovered “asymptotic freedom” in non-Abelian gauge theories; co-predicted the existence of charmonium – the bound state of a charm quark and its antiparticle
J. Georg Bednorz 1950-
German
co-discovered the first ceramic superconductors
Robert Laughlin 1950-
American
developed a theory of quantum fluids that explained the fractional quantum Hall effect
Frank Wilczek 1951-
American
co-discovered “asymptotic freedom” in non-Abelian gauge theories; contributed to the study of “anyons” (particle-like excitations in two-dimensional systems that obey “fractional statistics”)
Andre Geim 1958-
Dutch-Russian
co-discovered a simple method for isolating single atomic layers of graphite, known as graphene
Konstantin Novoselov 1974-
Russian-British
co-discovered a simple method for isolating single atomic layers of graphite, known as graphene