Nobel Laureates 1900- 1925

Frédéric Joliot-Curie 1900-1958
French
co-discovered artificial radioactivity
Dennis Gabor 1900-1979
Hungarian
invented and developed the holographic method whereby it is possible to record and display a three-dimensional display of an object
Wolfgang Pauli 1900-1958
Austrian-born American
discovered the exclusion principle; suggested the existence of the neutrino
Enrico Fermi 1901-1954
Italian-born American
performed experiments leading to first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction; developed a theory of beta decay that introduced the weak interaction; derived the statistical properties of gases that obey the Pauli exclusion principle
Werner Heisenberg 1901-1976
German
contributed to creation of quantum mechanics; introduced the “uncertainty principle” and the concept of exchange forces
Ernest Orlando Lawrence 1901-1958
American
invented the cyclotron
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac 1902-1984
British
helped found quantum electrodynamics; predicted the existence of antimatter by combining quantum mechanics with special relativity
Alfred Kastler 1902-1984
French
discovered and developed optical methods for studying the Hertzian resonances that are produced when atoms interact with radio waves or microwaves
Eugene Wigner 1902-1995
Hungarian-born American
contributed to theoretical atomic and nuclear physics; introduced concept of the nuclear cross section
Cecil F. Powell 1903-1969
British
developed the photographic emulsion method of studying nuclear processes; discovered the charged pion
Ernest Walton 1903-1995
Irish
co-invented the first particle accelerator
Pavel A. Cherenkov 1904-1990
Soviet
discovered the “Cerenkov effect” whereby light is emitted by a particle passing through a medium at a speed greater than that of light in the medium
Carl David Anderson 1905-1991
American
discovered the positron and the muon
Felix Bloch 1905-1983
Swiss-born American
contributed to development of the NMR technique; measured the magnetic moment of the neutron; contributed to the theory of metals
Sir Nevill F. Mott 1905-1996
British
contributed to theoretical condensed-matter physics by applying quantum theory to complex phenomena in solids; calculated cross section for relativistic Coulomb scattering
Emilio Segrè 1905-1989
Italian-born American
co-discovered the antiproton; discovered technetium
Hans Bethe 1906-2005
German-born American
contributed to theoretical nuclear physics, especially concerning the mechanism for energy production in stars
Maria Goeppert-Mayer 1906-1972
German-born American
advanced shell model of nuclear structure
Ernst Ruska 1906-1988
German
designed the first electron microscope
Shin-Ichiro Tomonaga 1906-1979
Japanese
co-developed quantum electrodynamics
J. Hans D. Jensen 1907-1973
German
advanced shell model of nuclear structure
Edwin M. McMillan 1907-1991
American
made discoveries concerning the transuranium elements
Hideki Yukawa 1907-1981
Japanese
predicted existence of the pion
John Bardeen 1908-1991
American
co-discovered the transistor effect; developed theory of superconductivity
Il’ja M. Frank 1908-1990
Soviet
co-developed the theoretical interpretation of the radiation of electrons moving through matter faster than the speed of light (the “Cerenkov effect”), and carried out experimental investigations of pair creation by gamma rays
Lev Landau 1908-1968
Soviet
contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar 1910-1995
Indian-born American
made important theoretical contributions concerning the structure and evolution of stars, especially white dwarfs
William Shockley 1910-1989
American
co-discovered the transistor effect
Luis Walter Alvarez 1911-1988
American
constructed huge bubble chambers and discovered many short-lived hadrons; advanced the impact theory for the extinction of the dinosaurs
William Fowler 1911-1995
American
studied nuclear reactions of astrophysical significance; developed, with others, a theory of the formation of chemical elements in the universe
Polykarp Kusch 1911-1993
American
experimentally established that the electron has an anomalous magnetic moment and made a precision determination of its magnitude
Edward Mills Purcell 1912-1997
American
developed method of nuclear resonance absorption that permitted the absolute determination of nuclear magnetic moments; co-discovered a line in the galactic radiospectrum caused by atomic hydrogen
Glenn T. Seaborg 1912-1999
American
co-discovered plutonium and all further transuranium elements through element 102
Willis E. Lamb, Jr. 1913-2008
American
made discoveries concerning fine structure of hydrogen
Robert Hofstadter 1915-1990
American
measured charge distributions in atomic nuclei with high-energy electron scattering; measured the charge and magnetic-moment distributions in the proton and neutron
Norman F. Ramsey, Jr. 1915-2011
American
developed the separated oscillatory fields method, which is the basis of the cesium atomic clock (our present time standard); co-invented the hydrogen maser
Clifford G. Shull 1915-2001
American
developed a neutron scattering technique in which a neutron diffraction pattern is produced that may be used to determine the atomic structure of a material
Charles H. Townes 1915-
American
created first maser using ammonia to produce coherent microwave radiation
Francis Crick 1916-2004
English
co-proposed the double-helix structure of DNA
Maurice Wilkins 1916-2004
British
investigated the structure of DNA
Bertram N. Brockhouse 1918-2003
Canadian
developed the technique of neutron spectroscopy for studies of condensed matter
Richard P. Feynman 1918-1988
American
co-developed quantum electrodynamics; created a new formalism for practical calculations by introducing a graphical method called Feynman diagrams
Frederick Reines 1918-1998
American
established, together with Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., the existence of the electron antineutrino by detecting them using a reactor experiment
Julian Schwinger 1918-1994
American
co-developed quantum electrodynamics
Kai M. Siegbahn 1918-2007
Swedish
contributed to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy
Nicolaas Bloembergen 1920-
Dutch-born American
contributed to the development of laser spectroscopy
Owen Chamberlain 1920-2006
American
co-discovered the antiproton
Yoichiro Nambu 1921-
Japanese-born American
contributed to elementary particle theory; recognized the role played by spontaneous symmetry-breaking in analogy with superconductivity theory; formulated QCD (quantum chromodynamics), the gauge theory of color
Andrei Sakharov 1921-1989
Russian
father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb; awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations
Arthur L. Schawlow 1921-1999
American
contributed to the development of laser spectroscopy
Jack Steinberger 1921-
German-born American
made many important discoveries in particle physics; co-discovered the neutral pion via photoproduction; co-discovered the muon neutrino
Nikolai Basov 1922-2001
Soviet
worked in quantum electronics; independently worked out theoretical basis of the maser
Aage Bohr 1922-2009
Danish
contributed to theoretical understanding of collective motion in nuclei
Leon Lederman 1922-
American
contributed to the discovery of the muon neutrino and the bottom quark
Chen Ning Yang 1922-
Chinese-born American
co-proposed parity violation in weak interactions
Val Logsdon Fitch 1923-
American
co-discovered that decays of neutral kaons sometime violate CP conservation
Jack S. Kilby 1923-2005
American
invented the monolithic integrated circuit – the microchip – which laid the foundation for the field of microelectronics; co-invented the hand held calculator
Willard S. Boyle 1924-2011
Canadian
co-invented the CCD (charge-coupled device)
Georges Charpak 1924-2010
French
invented the multiwire proportional chamber
Roy J. Glauber 1925-
American
made important contributions to the theoretical understanding of quantum optics and high-energy collisions
Simon van der Meer 1925-2011
Dutch
contributed to experiments that led to the discovery of the carriers (W± and Z°) of the weak interaction