Characteristics of the three kinds of emission

There are three types of radiations in IGCSE course: alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiations.

The three types of radiations have following distinct properties.

 
Alpha Particles (α) Beta Particles (β) Gamma Rays (γ)
Nature helium ion or helium
nucleus made up of two
protons and two neutrons
high energy electrons
emitted from the nucleus
high energy
electromagnetic radiation
Charge  +2  -1  no charge
Ionization effect
in gases
 highest ionization effect
due to frequent collision
with gas molecules
 much less ionization
effect than alpha rays
 least ionization effect
Mass 4 units 1/1836 units no mass
Penetration
effect
stopped by the sheet of
paper and have range of
few millimeter in air
range of few millimeters
in aluminum and several
meters in air
very high penetration effect,  can only be stopped
by thick sheet of lead.
Deflection deflected by electric and
magnetic fields
deflected by electric and
magnetic fields
not deflected by electric or
magnetic fields