**Newton’s** First **Law of Motion**: I. Every object in a state of uniform **motion** tends to remain in that state of **motion** unless an external force is applied to it. This we recognize as essentially Galileo’s concept of inertia, and this is often termed simply the “**Law** of Inertia”.

**Newton’s laws of motion** are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. They have been expressed in several different ways, over nearly three centuries, and can be summarised as follows.

First law: |
When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force. |

Second law: |
The vector sum of the external forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration vector a of the object: F = ma. |

Third law: |
When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body. |

Topical Notes, Topical Notes, Problems, Presentations, Quiz, Test, Investigations and Videos |

Static Equilibrium(first law) |

Dynamics of a single particle ( second law) |

Systems of Two or more objects (third law) |

Test your Understanding: Chapter 3 MCQ Quiz 1 Here Take Chapter 3 ReQuiz MCQ Quiz 2 Here |

The three laws of motion were first compiled by Isaac Newton in his *Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica* (*Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy*), first published in 1687. Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. For example, in the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined with his law of universal gravitation, explained Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.

Newton’s laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years, and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. Newton’s laws of motion, together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus, provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena.